An academic’s degree awarded in different counties is essentially different in titles, requirements to qualifications, and an awarding or approval procedure.

Harmonization of degrees list is being made for the establishment of common requirements for three degrees at every branch of learning in the USA, Great Brittan and other European countries jointed to the Bologna process:

  1. bachelor or licentiate,
  2. master,
  3. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) (the term "philosophy" does not refer solely to the modern field of philosophy; there are PhD degrees for many different fields, such as PhDs in literature, philosophy, history, science, mathematics, and engineering,

awarded to accredited Institutions of Higher Education.

Russian education system is being mixed now. It is applied 4-year bachelor’s degree and 6-year master’s degree with 5-year specialist’s degree. Instead of higher common western Doctor of Philosophy degree is applied the German system of two degrees:

  • Candidate of Science
  • Doctor of Science.

Separation process of getting higher education on two steps bachelor and master corresponds to market economy needs and opens vast possibilities for employment not only in Russia but in other foreign countries.

Admission of two steps study is related with integration of Russia higher professional education in Bologna process (an advance of native education system in Institutions of Higher Education and putting education system into the international standards) because of it specialist’s degree is being changed by degree’s and master’s degree.

4-year multidisciplinary bachelor’s program of the first step education has scientific and professional character. Bachelors are given fundamental training without any specialization (unlike the diploma specialist) necessary for successful work on the ordinary executor positions.

5-year specialist’s programs are mono programs (it is an independent course that are not separated on the steps). Students own special skills and knowledge enough for successful work in the narrow specialty. Advanced level of professional knowledge in comparison with bachelor program is achieved by the specialized students study, owning the knowledge and particular features of professions.

2-year master’s program is final step, the highest level of Russian professional higher education. Today employers are oriented on the master’s degree diplomas that correspond with both high level of theoretical and application knowledge and skills. Master’s program allows expanding basic education (specialist and bachelor program) and gets master’s degree in the same or other sciences.

3-year postgraduate (candidate) programs are intended for training an academic staff of higher qualification. Only specialists and masters can be accepted to the post-graduate study. First of all postgraduate study is necessary for realization creative and scientific potential and just then for getting extra knowledge in specialty. After graduation Candidates work in the places that require deepen fundamental and professional skills attached with solving research and production science tasks in the corresponding branch of knowledge. Candidate’s degree is awarded by Dissertation Council (Thesis Board) and is approved (making decision of giving Candidate of Science degree diploma) by The State Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles of Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation. For getting Candidate’s degree it is necessary to prepare dissertation and defend it on the meeting of dissertation council created in the institute of higher education, in the scientific research institute or in other institutions.

Less or 3-year Doctor’s program is training of science and research educational staff for the institute of higher education and scientific organizations and awarded with Doctor’s degree. Only Candidate of Science can apply to the Doctor’s program. Doctor’s degree of Science is awarded by the Presidium of Higher Commission for Academic Degrees and Titles according of the application of the dissertation council. For getting Doctor of Science degree it is necessary to prepare a dissertation and defend it on the meeting of the dissertation council created in the institute of higher education, in the scientific research institute or in other institutions.

An analogue of the academic Candidate of Science degree in many countries is Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and many other equal degrees (but rarely).

A close analogue of Doctor of Science degree is Doctor of Science (D.Sc.)  in the counties with one step form education, and Doctor habilitatus, Dr. habil. in the countries with the two steps education for example Germany.

Institute Academic Year

Academic Year (10 months – 2 semesters):

  • I semester: September – December
  • II semester: February – May


  • January
  • June


  • Excellent – 5 (>80%)
  • Good – 4 (60-79%)
  • Satisfactory – 3 (41-59%)
  • Unsatisfactory – 2 (<40%)


  • Winter vacation – 2 weeks (end of January – beginning of February)
  • Summer vacation – 8 weeks (July – August)
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